Scavenger Hunt – Douglas King, Blake Ivey, Triana Beasley

  1. William Randolph Hearst – in response to a cable from an artist of his saying the war he was sent to cover was not actually going on. A prime example of Yellow Journalism, which
  2. Creel Committee on Public Information – A PR campaign headed by George Creel used to sell the US’s participation in World War I. It engaged on a scale never before seen, using movies, public speakers, articles in newspapers and magazines, and posters. Wartime propaganda on a large scale.
  3. Payne Fund Studies – first systematic attempt to discover media impact scientifically. Published 13 studies in 10 volumes on various topics pertaining to the impact of movies. Introduced many themes that persist in media effects literature to this day.
  4. GSR- Galvanic Skin response. Emotions a lot of times are conveyed through sweat, researchers were able to send a small amount of electric current through that sweat, it reflects the amount of response an individual has. For example, children didn’t have as much of an emotional response as adults did to romantic events.
  5. Herbert Blumer – Collected responses from questionnaires and interviews with children, adolescents and young adults in which they were asked to reflect on how exposure to media messages had affected their behavior.
  6. War of the Worlds – a radio dramatized version of War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells. The broadcast was accepted as reality and several people reacted as though the world was being invaded by Martians. People relied on radio as a new source so when the broadcast featured many breaking news type interruptions they assumed it was actual news as opposed to part of the actual radio drama. Further complicating the situation was the fact that many listeners came in after the beginning when the show was announced to be a dramatization. The broadcast demonstrated that the media could trigger widespread, intense responses from audiences.
  7. Magic Bullet Model (also called the Hypodermic needle Model) of Mass Communication – This is a theory that states that once a message reaches the audience, it will have powerful and relatively uniform effects on everyone who receives it. Essentially this means that the message will definitely effect people, and usually the same way.
  8. The commercial movies are an unsavory mess:
    • Quoted from lowery and DeFleur relating to their review of Payne Fund studies. They believed that the studies helped establish a legacy of fear that is manacing and its effects could upset social order
    • The TV/Movie industry is one of the main sources of a corrupt society because they play major roles in the way humans live their lives
      • Legacy of Fear:
        • Widespread belief that the media was dangerous
        • The effects of media messages might pervert and upset the proper social order
        • Filmmakers should exercise a great sense of social responsibility
  9. The People’s Choice Study: A study on how/why people decided to vote the way they did in the 1940 Presidential Election. Was one of the first such studies to use large control groups (600 people to each group). Surprisingly it was found that the impact of media exposure to campaign messages was negligible in terms of convincing voters to change their mind (Conversion).
  10. The “Limited Effects” perspective & Joseph Klapper – Klapper worked for General Electric, and had a theory that Media didn’t have much of an impact on people at all. Any impact it had on people’s attitudes was superficial, and not important parts of people’s attitudes and behavior.
  11. Frederick Wertham:
    • A German-born American psychiatrist and crusading author who protested the harmful effects of violent imagery in mass media and comic books on the development of children. His best-known book was Seduction of the Innocent (1954), which purported that comic books are dangerous to children. Wertham’s criticisms of comic books helped spark a U.S. Congressional inquiry into the comic book industry and the creation of the comics code. He called television “a school for violence” and said “If I should meet an unruly youngster in a dark alley, I prefer it to be one who has not seen Bonnie and Clyde.”
    • Believed exposure to the messages of these comic books could corrupt juvenile behavior.
    • Lead young people into a life of reckless crime and self-abuse.
  12. Robert Liebert and Joyce Sprafkin – studied how viewing violence affects behavior in young people. Came to the conclusion that it causes violent behavior in children.
  13. Principle of Selective Exposure to Communication – People are likely to expose themselves to media and messages in which they already agree. They also avoid messages they disagree with.
  14. Micro Level Media effects:
    • Involves effects on individual media consumers. Studies that rely on the experimental method are designed to uncover micro-level effects. Studies that monitor physiological arousal while viewers watch a horror movie are concerned with how media messages affect individual physiology.
      • studies were conducted to fund out audience’s reactions to horror movies
  15. Macro-Level Media Effects – Examines media effect on large communities.
    •  Example: A study on how the coverage of a major event affects the way people see the event in a given community. A forest fire in Colorado will be of great concern to people in and around the fire area, but is of little concern to people in Atlanta (as a whole).

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